Survey of Evidence
Mind Control Experiments

by Cheryl Welsh
Director, Mind Justice
January 2003 with 2006 update

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About the author

I am currently a law student at Lincoln Law School in Sacramento, California and audited a class in international human rights at the University of California, Davis School of Law and completed national security law at McGeorge School of Law. I received an AA degree in math and science and worked for ten years as a medical receptionist. I received a BA in physical education from University of California, Davis in 1991. I had a very ordinary life until I was targeted with nonconsensual government experimentation in 1987. Since then I changed my life to fight nonconsensual mind control experiments. I received a second BA in government from California State University, Sacramento and started a nonprofit research and education organization, Citizens Against Human Rights Abuse (CAHRA), now Mind Justice, in 1996. I was interviewed by CNN on the 1997 program, “American Edge,” also featuring former CIA director James R. Woolsey. The 1998 Learning Channel program series, “Ultrascience III,” entitled “Spies Are Us,” included my interview about the growing numbers of victims worldwide. James Lin, University of Illinois-Chicago, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering professor and “world authority on microwave hearing,” was also featured. Recently, I was interviewed by KOVR 13 News for a 2001 rally on nonconsensual experimentation at the California state capital.


As director of the nonprofit group, Mind Justice, I have received over 1,800 claims of mind control since 1996. A strong case can be made that the US, Russia, and major countries are developing and conducting classified mind control nonconsensual experiments. The issue of mind control and nonconsensual experiments is addressed by European, Russian, and US legislatures, several human rights groups, and notably, the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR). This article is a summary of the mind control experimentation issue and includes the following sections.
  • A cold war history of electromagnetic radiation (emr) and mind control weapons development becomes public knowledge with the breakup of the USSR
  • Mind control experiments are similar to past nonconsensual government experiments: conducted for weaponization of the most significant scientific discoveries of the 20th century
  • Current US law for secret human experiments: an ongoing and almost complete lack of legal protections for human subjects of secret state experiments in the US
  • Emr weapons are based on two main scientific theories, according to experts, and descriptions of emr and mind control weapons include; “strictly classified,” “dehumanizing,” and “no less dangerous than mass strike weapons,” according to human rights experts
  • The 2002 UNIDIR endorsement of a Mind Justice article on nonlethal, emr, and mind control weapons, and nonconsensual experiments
  • Reported mind control symptoms and descriptions include; “a slow death,” “unbelievably sophisticated,” “vicious, amoral, sadistic, and cruel,” and “appear to be the development of weapons to neutralize the enemy without killing”
  • Published descriptions of US mind control victims: from the 1950s-1970s, victims were predominantly the powerless, the poor and prisoners; now victims include all walks of life, men, women, young and old, especially whistleblowers, activists, and foreigners
  • Published descriptions of Russian mind control victims: organized victim groups are featured in newspaper articles and victims publish books but do not get help
  • A cover story is now obsolete: Russia and former East Block maintain nonthermal emr biological effects are used for new weapons, US says nonthermal emr effects are not proven
  • Russian mind control weapons: US won emr arms race but it’s classified
  • Another obsolete cover story: mind control is science fiction; but what about decades-old classified emr and brain research
  • Discussions and legislation of mind control weapons: crippled by secrecy
  • Conclusion: The survey of evidence regarding mind control experiments reveal an unanticipated and far-reaching finding: a reasonable probability that the US has successfully developed sophisticated mind control weapons
  • Notes

A cold war history of electromagnetic radiation (emr) and mind control weapons development becomes public knowledge with the breakup of the USSR

Some mind control weapons are based on the electromagnetic signaling system of the brain and nervous system, while some weapons are known to be based on the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation at the cellular level. Therefore, the related cold war story of the development of electromagnetic radiation (emr) weapons is important to the history of mind control weapons. Mind control weapon research is more secret than the Manhattan Project, the project to develop the atomic bomb, and information is hard to find.1 But as revealed in UN documents, weapons experts papers, and scientific journals, a classified emr arms race between Russia and the US became public knowledge with the momentous event of the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1989.2 Given this fascinating and rarely-reported history, claims of nonconsensual mind control experiments become plausible.

Some cover stories for mind control weapons have been maintained by the US government for almost fifty years and are now obsolete. One cover story was the US policy for emr health exposure limits, based on the theory that emr has no provable health effects, only the effects from heating. But with the breakup of the Soviet Union, the military flip-flopped, threw out this fifty-year scientific fallacy, and in 1997 revealed US military funding for the development of “new” weapons based on the biological effects of emr. A second cover story is that sophisticated mind control is not possible today: it is still science fiction. Three recent newspaper articles on fighting terrorism challenges this myth and expose the defense industry’s flip-flop attempts to perpetuate it.

As will be shown, human rights experts and top political figures make comparisons of emr weapons to the atomic bomb, the most powerful weapons on earth. Freedom of thought can be obliterated with emr weapons’ attack on the brain in addition to the body. Because emr weapons are silent, undetectable, and leave no trace, some experts say WWW III could be fought and won without a trace.3

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Mind control experiments are similar to past nonconsensual government experiments: conducted for weaponization of the most significant scientific discoveries of the 20th century

Secret US and Russian government experiments on humans have been declassified. Now it is public knowledge that the discovery of secrets of the atom led to the development of the atomic bomb and US and Russian scientists conducted extensive nonconsensual radiation experiments. With the discovery of the secrets of DNA and the development of biological weapons, scientists conducted US nonconsensual experiments in which microbes were sprayed over cities. Soviet biological warfare efforts included human experiments to develop lethal viruses.4 The discovery of the secrets of the brain is no different. As reported in a 1979 Washington Post article, “Book Disputes CIA Chief on Mind-Control Efforts: Work Went on Into 1970s, Author Says”:

Despite assurances last year from Central Intelligence Director Stansfield Turner that the CIA’s mind-control program was phased out over a decade ago, the intelligence agency has come up with new documents indicating that the work went on into the 1970s, according to a new book. John Marks, the author of the book, said the CIA mind-control researchers did apparently drop their much publicized MK-ULTRA drug-testing program. But they replaced it, according to Marks, with another supersecret behavioral-control project under the agency’s Office of Research and Development. The ORD program used a cover organization set up in the 1960s outside Boston headed by Dr. Edwin Land, the founder of Polaroid, who acted as a “figurehead,” said Marks in his book. The project investigated such research as genetic engineering, development of new strains of bacteria, and mind control. The book identifies the Massachusetts proprietary organization headed by Land as the Scientific Engineering Institute. The CIA-funded institute was originally set up as a radar and technical research company in the 1950s and shifted over to mind-control experiments in the 1960s with the exception of a few scattered programs. According to Marks, however, the ORD program was a full-scale one and just as secret as the earlier MK-ULTRA project.5

In a March 14, 1987, Nation magazine editorial, Louis Slesin, editor of the trade publication, Microwave News, wrote; "Experts agree that nonionizing electromagnetic radiation (NIER) can affect behavior, but the question is whether the radiation can be harnessed and used on people at a distance. With its MKULTRA program the C.I.A. began looking for the answer in the early 1950s." Slesin described that in the 1979 book, Search for the Manchurian Candidate by John Marks, Marks filed a freedom of information act (foia) request. The CIA replied that "it had a roomful of files on electromagnetic and related techniques to alter behavior and stimulate the brain." But, "[t]he agency refused to release the papers, and they remain classified." Mind Justice made a similar foia request and the CIA would not release the papers.

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Current US law for secret human experiments: an ongoing and almost complete lack of legal protections for human subjects of secret state experiments in the US

In the 1990s, nonconsensual radiation experiments were proven with government documents. And yet, tragically, laws to prevent secret experiments by intelligence agencies from happening again, have failed to pass, and no effective rules or executive orders have been implemented. Not surprisingly, victims who allege mind control experiments are not finding legal remedies. In addition, victims of past nonconsensual experiments have been labeled “nut cases” or “kooks.” For example, a 1997 New York Times Magazine article, “Atomic Guinea Pigs,” stated, “For decades, those who claimed to be victims of clandestine radiation experiments conducted by the United States government were dismissed as paranoid. But the opening of cold-war archives has brought ‘the Crazies’ in from the fringe.”6 Most allegations of mind control experiments are also dismissed as mental illness, an overwhelming alternate explanation and cover story for victims to overcome.

Ethicist Jonathan Moreno is the author of the 1999 book, Undue Risk: Secret State Experiments on Humans. In a newspaper interview, Moreno disclosed that in 2001 President Bush granted the Department of Health and Human Services, (HHS) the authority to classify department research as secret. Moreno warned, this could allow the Defense Department or CIA to undertake secret human experiments with the HHS.7 The increased secrecy and acquisition of billions of defense dollars in a post 9-11 world are ideal strategies for continuing nonconsensual mind control experiments.

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Emr weapons are based on two main scientific theories, according to experts, and descriptions of emr and mind control weapons include; “strictly classified,” “dehumanizing,” and “no less dangerous than mass strike weapons,” according to human rights experts

Some electromagnetic radiation weapons work on the theory that the mind and nervous system communicate with electrical, magnetic, and emr signals. One theory is based on the development and technology of electromagnetic brain signals and the organization of the central nervous system. Signals from outside sources can mimic, block, or alter the mind and body’s own signals. Louis Slesin, editor of the trade journal Microwave News, provided a rudimentary example of this process in a 1997 US News and World Report article entitled “Wonder Weapons”:

[T]he human body is essentially an electrochemical system, and devices that disrupt the electrical impulses of the nervous system can affect behavior and body functions. But these programs--particularly those involving antipersonnel research--are so well guarded that details are scarce. “People [in the military] go silent on this issue,” says Slesin, “more than any other issue. People just do not want to talk about this.”8

In addition, emr weapons are based on a theory that emr can cause biological effects at the cellular level, rather than within the nervous system. In any discussion about the science of emr weapons, it is important to know that the thermal effects of emr are limited to those biological effects caused only by heating, as in warming food in a microwave oven. Nonthermal or athermal effects of emr are any biological effect not caused by heating. As will be seen, the thermal/nonthermal distinction sounds simple but this is the fundamental basis of a fifty year, international, scientific controversy. The November 1990 International Review of the Red Cross explains the theory:

Research work in this field [electromagnetic weapons] has been carried out in almost all industrialized countries, and especially by the great powers, with a view to using these phenomena for anti-materiel or anti-personnel purposes.... In spite of the rarity of publications on this subject, and the fact that it is usually strictly classified information, research undertaken in this field seems to have demonstrated that very small amounts of electromagnetic radiation could appreciably alter the functions of living cells.9

The nonthermal effects of emr are one scientific basis for weapons and a biological basis of some brain function, according to several human rights experts, military and civilian authorities, and top government science advisors. For example, Stefan Possony, a Stanford University Hoover Institute fellow, who was called “the intellectual father of ‘Star Wars’” and was “one of the most influential civilian strategic planners in the Pentagon,” wrote the 1983 Defense and Foreign Affairs article, “Scientific Advances Hold Dramatic Prospects for Psy-Strat.”10

Suppose it becomes feasible to affect brain cells by low frequency waves or beams, thereby altering psychological states, and making it possible to transmit suggestions and commands directly into the brain. Who is so rash as to doubt that technological breakthroughs of this general type would not be put promptly to psyops use? More importantly who would seriously assume that such a technology would not be deployed to accomplish political and military surprise?11

Russia and the East Block’s position was that the nonthermal effects of emr could be used to develop new weapons of mass destruction. The Russian scientific literature going back to the 1930s supported a theory of nonthermal effects of emr. In 1979, the UN Committee on Disarmament discussed Russian proposals to ban “new types of weapons of mass destruction” and included the following possible new weapons technologies:

4. Means using electromagnetic radiation to affect biological targets

As a result of research into the effects of electromagnetic radiation on biological targets, the existence of harmful effects of radio-frequency radiations within a wide range of frequencies on such vitally important organs of the human as the heart, the brain and the central nervous system may now be regarded as a firmly established fact. Assessments quoted in international literature of the potential danger of the development of a new weapon of mass destruction are based on the results of research into the so-called “non-thermal” effects of electromagnetic radiation on biological targets. These effects may take the form of damage to or disruption of the functioning of the internal organs and systems of the human organism or of changes in its functioning.12

Mikhail S. Gorbachev, the Soviet leader at the time, described emr weapons in a 1986 BBC Summary of World broadcast:

Weapons based on new physical principles would include, amongst others, means in which physical principles which have not been used hitherto are used to strike at personnel, military equipment and objectives. Amongst weapons of this kind one might include beam, radio-wave, infrasonic, geophysical and genetic weapons. In their strike characteristics these types of weapons might be no less dangerous than mass strike weapons. The Soviet Union considers it necessary to establish a ban on the development of arms of this kind. The Soviet Union has not carried out, nor does it intend to carry out either tests of such arms, or--even less so--the deployment of them. It will seek to ensure that all other countries do not do so either.13

A decade later, the US revealed a developing emr arsenal. In the July 1997 British Medical Journal, Robin Coupland of the International Committee of the Red Cross inquired, “[W]ill the soldiers who have survived battlefields of the future return home with psychosis, epilepsy, and blindness inflicted by weapons designed to do exactly that?”14 Barbara Hatch Rosenberg described non-lethal weapons in the September 1994 issue of Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists:

Many of the non-lethal weapons under consideration utilize infrasound or electromagnetic energy (including lasers, microwave, or radio-frequency radiation, or visible light pulsed at brain-wave frequency) for their effects. These weapons are said to cause temporary or permanent blinding, interference with mental processes, modification of behavior and emotional response, seizures, severe pain, dizziness, nausea and diarrhea, or disruption of internal organ functions in various other ways.... The current surge of interest in electromagnetic and similar technologies makes the adoption of a protocol explicitly outlawing the use of these dehumanizing weapons an urgent matter.15

In the June 1996 issue of Aviation Week and Space Technology, a Harvard molecular geneticist and biological/chemical warfare specialist, Matthew Meselson warned, “We’re going to learn how to manipulate every life process, genetic ones, mental ones, the emotional ones, ... If our inevitably increasing knowledge of life process is also harnessed to hostile purposes, that will completely change the nature of the expression of human hostility.”16 Unfortunately, Meselson’s words have proven to be prophetic.

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The 2002 UNIDIR endorsement of a Mind Justice article on nonlethal, emr, and mind control weapons, and nonconsensual experiments

Mind control weapons are a serious enough threat to be included along side nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons in a document published by the UNIDIR.17 The “2002 Media Guide to Disarmament in Geneva” was compiled to help the Geneva-based media bring disarmament issues “to the attention of the wider world.” Mind Justice is one of six non-lethal weapons experts cited by UNIDIR. Others include Human Rights Watch, International Committee of the Red Cross, and University of Bradford Department of Peace Studies.

The Media Guide includes a nonlethal weapons “links” section to the Center for Defense Information, the University of Bradford, Nonlethal Weapons Research Project, and to my article, “Nonlethal Weapons: A Global Issue.”18 In the article I present numerous comments and warnings by international experts and public figures about mind control weapons. The article presents specific allegations regarding nonconsensual government experiments and classified nonlethal weapons which target the brain and nervous system, or as they are popularly known by the emotionally charged term, “mind control.” Called information and psychotronic weapons in Russia and China, mind control weapons are included in the category of nonlethal weapons in the 2002 Disarmament Guide. UNIDIR is studying the parameters of this issue, nuclear disarmament, and fourteen other categories of weapons. The 2002 UNIDIR citation of Mind Justice and the article substantiate my position that claims of nonconsensual experiments by governments in highly classified mind control weapons programs are a legitimate and serious disarmament issue.

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Reported mind control symptoms and descriptions include: “a slow death,” “unbelievably sophisticated,” “vicious, amoral, sadistic, and cruel,” and “appear to be the development of weapons to neutralize the enemy without killing”

Victims from all over the world have contacted Mind Justice with reports of being targeted with mind control technologies, although approximately 75% of victims are American and Russian. The following is a description of symptoms most commonly reported by victims.

Victims are subjected to various kinds of harassment and torture, twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, for years on end. Most believe that some type of technology can remotely track, target, and control every nerve in their bodies. Heart and respiration rate can speed up and slow down, and stomach and bowel functions are regulated. Illnesses and all types of pain can turn on and off in an instant. Microwave burns are reported. Sleep deprivation is common and dreams are manipulated. Victims say, “They [whoever is targeting them] can see through my eyes, what I see.” Sometimes victims describe seeing the images of projected holograms. Thoughts can be read. Most victims describe a phenomenon they call “street theater.” For example, people around the victim have repeated verbatim, the victim’s immediate thoughts, or harassive and personalized statements are repeated by strangers wherever the victim may go. Emotions can be manipulated. Microwave hearing, known to be an unclassified military capability of creating voices in the head, is regularly reported.19 Implanted thoughts and visions are common, with repetitive themes that can include pedophilia, homophobia and degradation. Victims say it is like having a radio or TV in your head. Less frequently, remote and abusive sexual manipulation is reported. Almost all victims say repetitive behavior control techniques are used and include negative, stimulus-response or feedback loops.

Some type of outside force can strike heavy blows to any object, or set any object including the body into strong vibration while nearby objects are not vibrating at all. Wrenching of house/building structures cause loud snapping or crackling noises, often heard at precisely the point where a victim is starting to doze off to sleep. Victims regularly report many types of bizarre and harassive remote manipulation of electrical equipment, phone, car, TV, and computers. Mail tampering is reported as well. Black bag intelligence tactics--tire slashing, break-ins without burglary but at times including sabotaged, modified items also appear on the list of invasions.

Victims agree: the experience of mind control phenomena is vicious, amoral, sadistic, and cruel. Most victims describe the experience as very debilitating and compare it to mental rape, an electronic prison, or total destruction of the quality of their lives. Many have been labeled mentally ill and live with financial ruin, loss of health, social life, and career. Victims theorize that the goal of the experiments would appear to be the development of weapons to neutralize the enemy, without killing them. All say the technology is unbelievably sophisticated and effective. To them, it is like a slow death.

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Published accounts of US mind control victims: from the 1950s-1970s, victims were predominantly the powerless, the poor and prisoners; now victims include all walks of life, men, women, young and old, especially whistleblowers, activists, and foreigners

Dave Fratus and several other prisoners at Utah State Prison in Draper, Utah claimed hearing voices caused by remote electronic emissions in their head and that the voices said they came from the planet Astra. In a letter dated October 18, 1988, Fratus described “some type of remote control electronic brain punishment.... ” In 1981, Dorothy Burdick wrote the book, Such Things are Known published by Vantage Press. Burdick was a college professor in a northern California community college. She was targeted with “microwave hearing,” the phenomena of voices heard in the head and caused by microwaves. Mike Sagedy came to the United States from Iran with his family and was targeted.

In 1997, Carole Sterling wrote a letter to the editor of the Star Beacon. She described her alleged targeting with emr weapons technologies that within months, led to her suicide:

Dear Star Beacon, I am writing about something that happened to me which goes back to December 1995. I went to a conference in Nevada. The day following the last night at the conference, I noticed that I had an injection mark on the base of my spine which was sore. Then the nightmare started three days after my return to Washington, DC .... It totally scrambled my brain, leaving me unable to think properly, simply functioning on sheer shock and horror, with total incomprehension of what was going on. It actually was debilitating. The room felt like a torture chamber. This forced me out of my home. I believe that the technology used, be it some type of a frequency assault, some sort of directed energy, in addition to whatever was injected in me, has caused damage to my brain. [I have] been living with this debilitating and excruciating pain for the last eight months so far.20

Many such incidents have been reported in the mainstream press. The Kansas City Pitch Weekly reported in 1995:

[Paul Schaefer, engineer] cites numerous examples of occasions when ‘adverse energies,’ ‘beams’ or ‘substances’ have been ‘shot’ at him. “A neighbor called me over to her porch one day, to tell me she’d seen a beam of light come out of the sky and shoot into one of my windows,” said Schaefer. “I could see the path through the garden where the leaves turned yellow.” ... When asked why they want to attack him, he said it was because of his radical activities and writings.21

A 1988 Los Angeles Times article described what happens to a majority of victims: a very normal person before the experience seeks help to stop the targeting. The victim provides witnesses and documentation, for example, of strange military helicopters circling the victim’s locations, and signal analysis of the detected signals, but is dismissed as mentally ill.

Government officials estimate that [Rex] Niles had handed over millions in under-the-table payments to employees of leading contractors in exchange for lucrative subcontracts before he secretly turned government witness-and began an undercover campaign with the FBI to sting the crooked buyers who had depended on his largess. Niles’ work as an informant led to the conviction of 19 industry buyers and supervisors on fraud, tax evasion and kickback charges, and Niles retired in triumph in April of 1987, lauded for his "unprecedented cooperation," into the Federal Witness Protection Program. But in the way stories have of not ending the way they are supposed to, ... Instead, he is living in a suburban home outside Los Angeles, sleeping under a makeshift foil tent fashioned to block the microwaves he believes are killing him....

The noises started again, he said. “You know, in the middle of the night at two in the morning, when they wouldn’t allow me to sleep; when they were aggravating my conscious as well as my subconscious mind, I would hear what sounded like large groups of people ... that sounded like a bottle breaking in the street.” “So I would go to the window, or one time I was dressed because I couldn’t sleep, so I went down, and the street was absolutely empty....” Niles became convinced that the marshals had set up an elaborate speaker system around his room to confuse him with artificial sounds. In intricate detail, he has worked out his theory of what happened. The marshals, he said, were attempting to make it appear as though he were crazy, setting him up in order to make off with his money. They kept him awake at night to minimize his resistance, he theorized....

He has produced testimony from his sister, a Simi Valley woman who swears that helicopters have repeatedly circled over her home. An engineer measured 250 watts of microwaves in the atmosphere inside Niles’ house and found a radioactive disc underneath the dash of his car.... “This has been a very tough story to tell people,” Niles admitted. “They have a hard time believing it. They wonder how could I have this much audacity and this much vanity, to think that I’m worth this kind of a push, this much manpower, equipment, airplanes, helicopters, at one point, 14 lasers. It isn’t that I’m worth it. It’s because they’ve got so much to protect.... ”22

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Published descriptions of Russian mind control victims: organized victim groups are featured in newspaper articles and victims publish books but do not get help

With the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian reports of mind control have become available. Mind Justice has formed an international coalition with a major group of mind control victims in Russia. In March 2002, the “Moscow Committee for the Ecology of Dwellings” appointed me, as the director of Mind Justice, to their Executive Committee. Since Emilia Cherkova and Leah Terekhova founded this Russian group in the 1990s, the organization has often been cited in major Russian newspapers. An authority in the area of mind control, Cherkova has sent Mind Justice several articles and books on Russian mind control, which are now translated and posted on the Mind Justice website. As illustrated in the 1995 Moscow Times article, “Report: Soviets Used Top-Secret ‘Psychotronic’ Weapons,” US and Russian victims share a striking similarity of symptoms and failed attempts to obtain help:

There may be a scientific explanation for the rigid-faced inflexibility of Soviet-era border guards and soldiers, after all. Reports have emerged of a top secret program of “psychotronic” brainwashing techniques developed by the KGB and the Ministry. The techniques, which include debilitating high frequency radio waves, hypnotic computer-scrambled sounds and mind-bending electromagnetic fields, as well as an ultrasound gun capable of killing a cat at fifty meters, were originally developed for medical purposes and adapted into weapons, said journalist Yury Vorobyovsky, who has been investigating the program for three years.

Ecology and Living Environment, an environmental and civil liberties group which claims a membership of 500 people in Moscow, has set up an association of “Victims of Psychotronic Experimentation,” who have filed damages claims against the Federal Security Service, or FSB, and the government. Unfortunately, since by definition many of the victims are psychologically disturbed, there is a problem of verification. “The Health Ministry and the FSB are doing medical experiments on over a million innocent people,” said Ecology and Living Environment President Emilia Cherkova, an ex-member of Zelenograd’s local council. Cherkova wears a lead helmet in bed to protect herself against the rays she says the government beams into her flat. “They put chemicals in the water and use magnets to alter your mind. We are fighting to prove to the authorities that we are not mad.” ...

Nevertheless, the State Duma is taking the matter seriously enough to draft a law on “security of the individual,” which will include regulation of subliminal advertising and pseudo-religious sects, as well as imposing state controls on all equipment in private hands which can be used as “psychotronic weaponry.” ...

“The law is pre-emptive,” said Vladimir Lopatin, chairman of the [Duma’s] drafting committee. “The equipment that now exists in laboratories must be very strictly controlled to prevent it from being sold to the private sector.” ... “Of course this project is surrounded with a lot of hysteria and conjecture,” said Lopatin of the Duma committee. “Something that was secret for so many years is the perfect breeding ground for conspiracy theories.”23

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A cover story is now obsolete: Russia and former East Block maintain nonthermal emr biological effects are used for new weapons, US says nonthermal emr effects are not proven

As mentioned above, Russia and the East Block’s position was that the nonthermal effects of emr could be used to develop new weapons of mass destruction. Also cited above, in the 1979 UN Committee on Disarmament document on emr weapons and Gorbachev’s 1986 BBC news interview, the former USSR has advocated banning emr weapons while at the same time denying any Russian development of the new weapons. The US position was the exact opposite to the Russians: there were no proven nonthermal effects of emr. But, like the Russians, the US denied any US development of nonthermal emr weapons. Nevertheless, throughout this period, the US conducted classified weapons research based on nonthermal emr effects. A 1994 Bulletin of Atomic Scientists article reported: “The concept of non-lethal weapons is not new; the term appears in heavily censored CIA documents dating from the 1960s.”24 And the US was investigating possible Russian emr weapons. For example, Robert Becker was a consultant to the CIA, investigating possible nonthermal emr effects on fighter pilots shot down by the Soviets, as reported in a 1984 BBC TV documentary, “Opening Pandora’s Box.” Becker was asked by the CIA in the early 60s to determine whether pilots being shot down and captured by Soviets “had personality changes induced in them by exposure to emr which they were not aware of.” The pilots were interned by the Soviets for two to six weeks. They were psychologically tested before they went on a flight, and again, after they were released by the Soviets. The psychological test results revealed “considerable personality alterations” after Soviet internment. During debriefing sessions, pilots reported they were treated well, and were not aware of any emr exposure by Soviets. Becker said “I told them [the CIA] I thought it was a distinct possibility, but that no one could give them that answer, for sure, at this present time, at that time.”

In sharp contrast to the Russian position on the nonthermal effects of emr, the US military, industry, and government scientists endorsed the US safety standards of electromagnetic radiation exposure, established in the 1950s by Herman Schwan, a Nazi Paperclip scientist. The US operated Project Paperclip between 1945 and 1955 in an attempt to exploit the expertise of German scientists after WW II, and 765 scientists were employed by the US government, including Schwan.25 Schwan’s position, that nonthermal effects of emr have not been proven, is still largely adhered to today. Schwan worked at the University of Pennsylvania on numerous government contracts and received Navy and National Institute of Health (NIH) funding throughout his entire career.26

In the early 1980s, Becker provided an explanation for the opposing US/Russian scientific views on nonthermal effects of emr. In the BBC documentary, “Opening Pandora’s Box,” Becker said:

The US may very well not have any [secret emr weapons] program whatsoever. On the other hand, it is equally valid to have such a program being conducted in even greater secrecy than the Manhattan Project was conducted. And the best cover story I could think of for that would be for the US to portray itself to the rest of the world, as a nation that was discarding the possibility of emr weapons, entirely, based upon its best scientific evidence.

Becker proved to be correct. Until the 1990s, the “best US scientific evidence,” was the position of Dr. Schwan, who refuted nonthermal emr effects and therefore the possibility of a classified US emr weapons program, from the 1950s to this day. Most US scientists adhered to this official position-until the 1990s.

With the breakup of the Soviet Union, the Pentagon publicly unveiled the nonlethal weapons program including weapons based on nonthermal emr effects and the US policy that there are “no proven nonthermal emr effects” took a 180 degree turn. The “Wonder Weapons” article confirmed, “scientists, aided by government research on the ‘bioeffects’ of beamed energy, are searching the electromagnetic and sonic spectrums for wavelengths than can affect human behavior.”

That emr can cause nonthermal biological effects is now a proven scientific theory, although still controversial. At a 1990 General Assembly of the International Union of Radio Science held in Prague, Ross Adey, a world-renowned emr expert concluded, “It is no longer a matter of speculation that biomolecular systems are responsive to low level, low frequency electromagnetic fields. Not only is tissue heating not the basis of these interactions, but the many instances of responses windowed with respect to field, frequency and intensity set a rubric for their consideration in physical mechanisms involving long range ordering at the atomic level.”27

In addition, the 2002 report by the Naval Studies Board of the National Research Council (NRC) under the National Academy of Sciences entitled, “An Assessment of Non-Lethal Weapons Science and Technology,” hypothesized:

Leap-ahead non-lethal weapons technologies will probably be based on more subtle human/RF interactions in which the signal information within the RF exposure causes an effect other than simply heating: for example, stun, seizure, startle, and decreased spontaneous activity. Recent developments in the technology are leading to ultrawideband, very high peak power, and ultrashort signal capabilities, suggesting that the phase space to be explored for subtle, yet potentially effective non-thermal biophysical susceptibilities is vast. 28

Adey has also testified before the US Congress on government suppression and control of research into nonthermal effects of emr. A 1988 AP article stated:

Since the early 1980s, however, federal government support for non-ionizing radiation bioeffects research has declined markedly. W. Ross Adey, a leading researcher based at the Veteran’s Administration Medical Center in Loma Linda, Calif., told a House subcommittee last Oct. 6 that current levels of government funding-now about $7 million a year-are disastrously low. “There is reason to believe that this situation has arisen in part through a well-organized activity on the part of major corporate entities from the consumer and military electronic industries to discredit all research into athermal biological and biomedical effects,” Adey said.29

Rosalie Bertell, who has authored UN reports on the Chernobyl disaster, has five honorary doctorates, and numerous peace prizes, has studied emr bioeffects. Bertell, with a doctorate degree in biometry, the design of epidemiological research and the mathematical analysis of bio-medical problems, helped gather health data of peace protesters. The peaceful demonstrations against the deployment of nuclear missiles took place just outside military bases in England. The protesters alleged government targeting and symptoms associated with exposure to “electromagnetic waves or low level radiation.” A 1987 Guardian (London) article, “Doctors Investigating Claims of Greenham Radiation Cases: Peace Women Fear Electronic Zapping at Base,” reported the situation. Bertell found that government control of funding of emr research via classified emr weapons development has resulted in a lack of available scientific health data on nonthermal effects of emr. As a consequence, Bertell said, alleged victims cannot prove health damages from emr weapons.

In a March 12, 2001 e-mail to Cheryl Welsh, Bertell wrote:

There is some confusion about weapon use and harassment or experimental use, with the latter being harder to document. The health effects which can be attributed to EMR weapons is also, as you know, not established. Your problems are quite similar to that of the atomic bomb victims, including the military, the Japanese and those living downwind of a nuclear test site. Very few of the experienced health effects have ever been admitted....

History has revealed that the denial of nonthermal effects of emr by US government scientists was undoubtedly a cover story for a long-term, highly classified emr weapons program. The former Soviet Union’s position on banning emr weapons and the flip-flop of the US military’s position on emr weapons after the breakup of the Soviet Union are indications of national security policy and its considerable domination over US scientific research of emr.

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Russian mind control weapons: US won emr arms race but it’s classified

As cited above, the former USSR has advocated banning emr weapons since the 1970s. The US has heavily classified nonlethal weapons since the 1960s and has denied the existence of weapons effects of emr up to the 1990s.30 On CNN News, the Pentagon said, “Radiofrequency weapons are too sensitive to discuss,” and has maintained this position throughout the 1980s.31 In the 1990s, however, the military admitted to looking for emr weapons based on nonthermal bioeffects.32

Russian classified mind control programs were revealed only as a result of the monumental event of the breakup of the Soviet Union. The 1993 Defense News article, “US Explores Russian Mind-Control Technology,” described some of Russia’s emr weapons:

Known as acoustic psycho-correction, the capability to control minds and alter behavior of civilians and soldiers may soon be shared with US military, medical and political officials, according to US and Russian sources.... Pioneered by the government-funded Department of Psycho-Correction at the Moscow Medical Academy, acoustic psycho-correction involves the transmission of specific commands via static or white noise bands into the human subconscious without upsetting other intellectual functions.33

Russian top secret and extensive mind control weapons programs were in chaos. The 1993 Defense News article stated that US and Russian sources were planning “discussions aimed at creating a framework for bringing the issue under bilateral or multilateral controls.... Therefore, the Russian authors have proposed a bilateral Center for Psycho-technologies where US and Russian authorities could monitor and restrict the emerging capabilities.” In addition, a 1993 Defense Electronics article discussed concerns of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA): mind control weapons “may still be in the Russian military inventory, and ... the technology could be exported to Third World nations via the growing black market in military equipment from the former Soviet Union....”34 The United States emerged as the single world super power and classified international agreements almost certainly control the use of emr weapons.

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Another obsolete cover story: mind control is science fiction; but what about decades-old classified brain research

Mainstream media presents mind control weapons to the general public as a future possibility and science fiction. For example, a May 2002, Economist article on the ethics of brain science editorialized, “[People] should worry about brain science too. There are no laws or treaties or public discussion of neurotechnology as there has been for genetics and cloning.” But like so many articles on advances in brain science, this article avoids alarming the reader, concluding, "to those who fear that neurotechnology is a hair’s breadth from catapulting society into a post-human future ... There is a [great] deal of searching to do yet before human nature gives up its secrets.”35 The Economist article is typical of what the public has been told: a superficial survey of an issue that completely sidesteps existing military and classified brain research. The “Wonder Weapons” article further illustrates this point:

In fact, the military routinely has approached the National Institutes of Health for research information. “DARPA [Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency] has come to us every few years to see if there are ways to incapacitate the central nervous system remotely,” Dr. F. Terry Hambrecht, head of the Neural Prosthesis Program at NIH, told US News. “But nothing has ever come of it,” he said, “That is too science fiction and far-fetched.”

The military’s position--that mind control is science fiction--is not questioned or investigated by mainstream press, and this contributes to an effective cover story to keep mind control weapons classified. The following four articles reveal that the capability to read thoughts is scientifically possible and surely developed by the military, especially given the information available on Russian mind control weapons. One article reported that mind reading technology to fight terrorism is possible, according to NASA. But in a fifth article, NASA, apparently worried about the developing public controversy, issued a denial stating that mind reading technology is not now possible.

In the October 2001 Signal Magazine article, “Decoding Minds, Foiling Adversaries,” John Norseen of Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company declared, “We are at the point where this database has been developed enough that we can use a single electrode or something like an airport security system where there is a dome above our head to get enough information that we can know the number you’re thinking, ....” According to the January 3, 2000 US News and World Report, “The National Aeronautic and Space Administration [NASA] ... have all awarded small basic research contracts to Norseen, ... -portions of them classified ....”

One year later, the August 17, 2002 Washington Times article, “NASA Plans to Read Minds at Airport” claimed:

Airport security screeners may soon try to read the minds of travelers to identify terrorists. Officials of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have told Northwest Airlines security specialists that the agency is developing brain-monitoring devices in cooperation with a commercial firm, which it did not identify. Space technology would be adapted to receive and analyze brain-wave and heartbeat patterns, then feed that data into computerized programs ‘to detect passengers who potentially might pose a threat,’ according to briefing documents obtained by The Washington Times. NASA wants to use ‘noninvasive neuro-electric sensors,’ imbedded in gates, to collect tiny electric signals that all brains and hearts transmit. Computers would apply statistical algorithms to correlate physiologic patterns with computerized data on travel routines, criminal background and credit information from ‘hundreds to thousands of data sources,’ NASA documents say.

Three days later, a 180-degree change in position was issued from Michael Braukus, NASA Headquarters, Washington, August 20, 2002 (Phone: 202/358-1979) Release: 02-160: "NASA Rejects Claims It Plans Mind-Reading Capability”:

NASA managers today said published media reports suggesting the agency plans to read the minds of potential terrorists go too far and ignore the facts and science behind the research. “ ... NASA does not have the capability to read minds, nor are we suggesting that would be done,” said Robert Pearce, Director, NASA’s Strategy and Analysis Division in the Office of Aerospace Technology in Washington. “ ... Some of the ideas will take several years of effort to establish, if there is a practical application.”

For decades, scientists have warned of the possible misuse of new brain research but say mind control is still science fiction. Brain research from the 1970s challenges this assumption. The 1976 Los Angeles Times article, “Mind Reading Machine Tells Secrets of the Brain: Sci-Fi Comes True,” reported:

Washington-In a program out of science fiction, the government is developing mind-reading machines that can show, among other things, whether a person is fatigued, puzzled or daydreaming.... The Advanced Research Projects Agency [ARPA]says the $1 million-a-year program has passed its initial laboratory tests and is ready for determination of its military uses.... George H. Heilmeier, director of the research agency [ARPA], dropped tantalizing hints about the EEG program in his annual report to Congress. Although he has provided few details, enough has been said about the program to raise some questions. For example, could these systems be used to read the minds of prisoners of war or to pick the brains of unsuspecting American citizens? Highly unlikely, agency scientists say. For one thing, the EEG must be individually calibrated. Brain-wave graphs mean different things for different persons. So it is necessary to obtain a baseline graph by having each individual think a specific series of thoughts. “It is quick and easy to make the calibration but it must be done for each individual,” one scientist explained. Besides, under present programs, it is necessary to place electrodes on the individual’s head. It does not hurt but it could scarcely be done secretly.

At MIT, however, scientists are studying magnetic brain waves that can produce graphs much like the electrical brain waves now being measured. Scientists for the research agency say it may be possible to pick up magnetic waves a foot or two from the subject’s head, perhaps by placing a receiver in the back of a chair. Could these waves be projected over distances greater than a few feet? “We are now talking about a foot or several feet,” one scientist said. “But the research agency has a pretty good idea of what it could be doing in the 1980s.”36

Based on the above articles, unclassified mind reading research scarcely advanced for over thirty years, while at the same time, mind reading technologies were a classified government capability. Information available on brain science in mainstream press continues to be biased and incomplete.

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Discussions and legislation of mind control weapons: crippled by secrecy

The concerns about possible misuse and abuse regarding the development and control of mind control weapons and nonconsensual experiments is a slowly growing international issue, as seen in a few of the available government documents. The weapons are classified and this limits the discussions and possible legislation, but the following recent US, Russian, and European documents are significant.

Congressman Dennis Kucinich sponsored House Bill 2977, “The Space Preservation Act of 2001.” This bill for banning weapons in space, included “psychotronic” and “mind control” weapons. According to Kucinich’s office, amidst pressure and concerns about ensuring bill passage, the section relating to “mind control” was removed from the bill in Spring 2002, but the bill still failed to pass. The relevant excerpt states:

(2)(A) The terms ‘weapon’ and ‘weapons system’ mean a device capable of any of the following: ... (ii) Inflicting death or injury on, or damaging or destroying, a person (or the biological life, bodily health, mental health, or physical and economic well-being of a person)- ... (II) through the use of land-based, sea-based, or space-based systems using radiation, electromagnetic, psychotronic, sonic, laser, or other energies directed at individual persons or targeted populations for the purpose of information war, mood management, or mind control of such persons or populations; ...37

A 1998 Russian federal law, “About Weapons,” is cited in the edition of Federal Laws of the Russian Federation. This Russian law is in effect today and prohibits:

“the circulation of civilian and military weapons” including the “use of radio-active radiations and biological factors;-weapons and other objects, the affects of the operations of which are based on the use of electro-magnetic, light, thermal, infra-sonic or ultra-sonic radiations and which have [existing] parameters, exceeding the magnitude of established governmental standards of the Russian Federation and corresponding norms of Federal governmental organs in the area of the Health Department,”38

A 1998 report edited by Morton Sklar of the World Organization Against Torture USA is entitled “Torture in the United States: The Status of Compliance by the US Government with the International Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.” The report was “prepared by the Coalition Against Torture and Racial Discrimination, a Joint Working Group of Non-Governmental Civil and Human Rights Groups in the US.” This project to “issue a joint report on US compliance under the Convention Against Torture was made possible through grants provided by the Ford Foundation and the World Council of Churches.” The chapter on involuntary human scientific experimentation concludes with the following:

Similar concerns also are being raised about involuntary human experimentation involving new forms of classified research and testing of high technology military weaponry, including microwave and laser equipment. Groups working on these issues cite, among other evidence of the existence of these unauthorized testing procedures, a White house inter-governmental memorandum dated March 27,1997, establishing stronger guidelines prohibiting non-consensual testing for classified research, but suggesting, by implication, that this type of human subject research may, in fact, be taking place. Because of the classified nature of these activities, it is very difficult to confirm or disprove that they are taking place. Given the serious negative impacts on non-consensual human subjects that classified research of this type is capable of producing, and given the past history of secret experimentation by the government, these allegations of continuing improprieties involving secret government sponsored human testing should not be dismissed without more thorough, impartial investigation.39

The European Parliament Resolution A4-005/99 entitled “Resolution on the Environment, Security, and Foreign Policy” passed on January 29, 1999. The draft resolution specifically discussed the serious concerns regarding electromagnetic radiation weapons. The final resolution “calls for an international convention introducing a global ban on all developments and deployments of weapons which might enable any form of manipulation of human beings.”40

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Conclusion: The survey of evidence regarding mind control experiments reveals an unanticipated and far-reaching finding: a reasonable probability that the US has developed sophisticated mind control weapons

Three seemingly separate fields of research connect in a post cold war examination: the almost fifty years of very classified emr weapons research, the almost fifty years of very classified CIA mind control research and over thirty years of very classified military brain research. By combining the three fields of research, a new perspective emerges: a reasonable probability that emr could be used for mind control purposes on people at a distance. The connecting link are the two theories for emr weapons. As previously described, several human rights experts, military and civilian authorities, and top government science advisors say nonthermal effects of emr are a scientific basis for some emr weapons and a biological basis of some brain function. As previously described, the second scientific theory for emr weapons was based on the development and technology of electromagnetic brain signals and the organization of the central nervous system. The mind and nervous system communicate with electrical, magnetic and emr signals. Signals from outside sources can mimic, block, or alter the mind and body’s own signals. The two theories were established decades ago, are known to be very classified, and the theories have not been disproven for almost fifty years.

Remote mind control could now be a classified and potent military capability. The first field of research to connect is the almost fifty years of US/Russian scientific controversy over nonthermal emr effects, the strictly classified research of emr weapons and the US/Russia emr arms race. The second field of research to connect is the 1960s CIA “supersecret behavioral-control project,” described as a “program [that] was a full-scale one and just as secret as the earlier MK-ULTRA project.” The CIA said it had a “roomful of files on electromagnetic and related techniques to alter behavior and stimulate the brain,” but the CIA would not release the information and it is still classified. The third field of research to connect is the classified mind reading research funded by the military for over thirty years. The 2002 NASA denials of any government mind reading capabilities contradicted Lockheed Martin scientist, Norseen, who confirmed in 2001 that he could use “a dome above our head to get enough information that we can know the number you're thinking.” And further, NASA denials of mind reading capabilities contradicted the 1970s government scientist statements to the Los Angeles Times that mind reading was possible and funded by the government in million-dollar-a-year programs. According to another government scientist in the article, reading brain signals remotely “a few to several feet from the head” was feasible in the mid-1970s.

Any nation would go to great lengths to have mind control in its arsenal. Most people would agree: mind control weapons development would be one of the deepest secrets of a nation and a high priority if other nations were thought to be developing it. In fact, the US/Russian emr arms race for almost fifty years is evidence of deeply classified and extensive US and Russian emr weapons programs. In addition, the three connected fields of research are large, well-funded, very classified for decades, and based on the same scientific theories used for emr and mind control weapons. And further, for almost fifty years, national security policy has completely dominated US scientific research of emr, and also mind reading and mind control. As a result, the science and theories of emr biological effects or mind reading and mind control are not available in the open literature and probably never will be. Together, this evidence suggests a reasonable probability of advanced and sophisticated mind control weapons developed by the US.

As history has shown, governments will never reveal nonconsensual experiments unless public opinion forces compliance. Progress has been made towards this goal and a number of experts agree, an investigation of the growing claims of nonconsensual mind control experiments is appropriate. The circumstantial evidence of nonconsensual experiments is powerful enough to be cited by the UNIDIR and human rights groups. Laws have passed and discussions to ban and regulate the use of mind control and emr weapons are taking place. But this progress has been limited by what little is publicly known about the classified weapons. The atomic bomb is public knowledge as a result of Hiroshima but mind control may not become public knowledge even after it is used. As experts have said, emr weapons are silent and leave no evidence. Much more can be done. Government accountability via the free press and Congress are essential elements of the US democratic system and given past cold war abuses, the public has a right to demand and know about classified mind control technology and weapons policy and for their public opinions to be counted. Mind Justice will continue to work towards stopping another illegal cold war experimentation program.

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  1. Bill Richards, “Book Disputes CIA Chief on Mind-Control Efforts: Work Went on Into 1970s, Author Says,” Washington Post Jan. 29, 1979: A2.
  2. Cheryl Welsh, “Emr Weapons: As Powerful As the Atomic Bomb,” 2001
  3. Opening Pandora’s Box, David Jones, prod., Fulcrum Central Productions, BBC documentary, Channel 4, England, 1984. Robert O. Becker interview. See also “Weapons of War,” Ultrascience, Learning Channel, US, Sept. 21, 1997. Michael Persinger interview.
  4. Jonathan D. Moreno, Undue Risk: Secret State Experiments on Humans (NewYork: Freeman, 1999) 233. “During the period 1949 to 1969 more than two hundred open-air tests of U.S. vulnerability to biological warfare attacks took place.... the Army never informed the residents of these areas, nor the local governments, that such tests were taking place.”
  5. Washington Post 1979.
  6. Michael D’Antonio, “Atomic Guinea Pigs,” New York Times Magazine Aug. 31,1997: 38.
  7. Peter Hardin, “The Ethics of Experiments: Scholars Fear Post Attack Secrecy,” Richmond Times-Dispatch Mar. 3, 2002: A14.
  8. Douglas Pasternak, “Wonder Weapons: The Pentagon’s Quest for Nonlethal Arms is Amazing. But is it Smart?” US News and World Report July 7, 1997: 38.
  9. Louise Doswald-Beck and Gerald C. Cauderay, “The Development of New Antipersonnel Weapons,” International Review of the Red Cross 279 (Nov. 1, 1990).
  10. Martin Walker, “Dark Dreamer of Star Wars; Obituary: Stephan Possony,” Guardian [London] May 5, 1995: 17.
  11. Stefan Possony, “Scientific Advances Hold Dramatic Prospects for Psy-Strat,” Defense and Foreign Affairs July 1983: 34.
  12. V.L. Issraelyan, Representative of the USSR to the Committee on Disarmament. Negotiations on the Question of the Prohibition of New Types of Weapons of Mass Destruction and New Systems of Such Weapons (UN Committee on Disarmament Document CD/35, July 10, 1979).
  13. “Press Conference on Gorbachev’s Nuclear Arms Elimination Proposals,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts Jan. 21, 1986: Tass for abroad: A1. [Online] Available: Lexis-Nexis/Miltry.
  14. Robin M. Coupland, editorial, “‘Non-Lethal’ Weapons: Precipitating a New Arms Race. Medicine Must Guard Against Its Knowledge Being Used for Weapon Development,” British Medical Journal 315 (July 12,1997): 72.
  15. Steven Aftergood, “The Soft-Kill Fallacy: The Idea of ‘Non-Lethal Weapons’ is Politically Attractive and Purposively Misleading,” Sidebar: Barbara Hatch Rosenberg, “‘Non-Lethal’ Weapons May Violate Treaties,” Bulletin of Atomic Scientists 50.5 (Sept./Oct. 1994): 45.
  16. Paul Mann, “Mass Weapons Threat Deepens Worldwide,” Aviation Week and Space Technology 144 (25) (June 17, 1996): 58.
  17. The Geneva Forum, “Media Guide to Disarmament in Geneva,” (Geneva: UNIDIR, 2002) 25
  18. Cheryl Welsh, “Nonlethal Weapons-A Global Issue,” 1999
  19. Microwave hearing is the transmission of sounds from an outside source into a person’s head that only the targeted person can hear. Two of the numerous cites on microwave hearing: NASA Center for Aerospace Information (CASI), Scientific and Technical Information # 81N12720  And Brian Kohn, contract number F41624-95-C-9007, “Communicating Via the Microwave Auditory Effect,” National Center for Environmental Research and Quality Assurance, Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR)
  20. Carol Sterling, letter, “Incident at Mesquite, Nevada Conference,” Star Beacon Oct. 1996: 2.
  21. Mike Taylor, “Ex-Engineer Against Adverse Energy,” Kansas City Pitch Weekly Apr. 13-19: 1995.
  22. Kim Murphy, “A Fearful Fix Grips Figure in Kickbacks,” Los Angeles Times Mar. 28, 1988: Metro1.
  23. Owen Matthews, “Report: Soviets Used Top-Secret ‘Psychotronic’ Weapons,” Moscow Times July 11, 1995.
  24. Steven Aftergood 43.
  25. George J. Annas and Michael A. Grodin, The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992)106.
  26. Shiro Takashima and Elliot Postow, eds. The Interaction of Acoustical and Electromagnetic Fields With Biological Systems: A Collection of Papers From the Symposium Honoring Professor Herman P. Schwan on the Occasion of His 65th birthday, Philadelphia, November 24 and 25, 1980, Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 86 (New York: Liss, 1982) 3,7,8, see ch. by Herman P. Schwan, “Physical Properties of Biological Matter: Some History Principles, and Applications,” on Schwan and Project Paperclip, see Frederik Nebeker ed., Sparks of Genius: Portraits of Electrical Engineering Excellence (New York: IEEE, 1994) 38.
  27. Mae-Wan Ho, Fritz-Albert Popp, and Ulrich Warnke, eds., Bioelectrodynamics and Biocommunication (Singapore: World Scientific, 1994) 84, see ch. by Cyril W. Smith, “Biological Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Fields,” in footnote, W. R. Adey, “Modern Radio Science,” J.B. Anderson, ed. (URSI:OUP,1990)1.
  28. Naval Studies Board An Assessment of Non-Lethal Weapons Science and Technology Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. 39.
  29. Barton Reppert, “Looking at the Moscow Signal: The Zapping of an Embassy 35 Years Later: the Mystery Lingers,” Associated Press May 22, 1988.
  30. Aftergood 43.
  31. “Radiofrequency Weapons, Is there an RF Gap?” CNN News: Special Assignment. Chuck DeCaro, prod., narr. CNN, Atlanta, Nov. 1985.
  32. Pasternak 38. see also, 34. Naval Studies Board 39.
  33. Barbara Opall, “US Explores Russian Mind-Control Technology: US, Russia Hope to Safeguard Mind-Control Techniques,” Defense News Jan. 11-17, 1993: 29.
  34. Mark Tapscott, “DOD, Intel Agencies Look at Russian Mind Control Technology: Claims FBI Considered Testing on Koresh,” Defense Electronics July 1993: 17.
  35. “The Ethics of Brain Science: Open Your Mind,” Economist May 23, 2002
  36. Norman Kempster, “Mind Reading Machine Tells Secrets of the Brain Sci-Fi Comes True,” Los Angeles Times Mar. 29, 1976.
  37. 107th United States Cong.,1st Sess., proposed legislation, (HR 2977) The Space Preservation Act of 2001 Representative Dennis Kucinich Oct. 2, 2001 (Washington: GPO, 2001)
  38. Federal Law, Russian Federation (RF), No. 103-F3 About Weapons July 26, 2001  A special thank you to Emilia Cherkova and translator Ramon Ruelas.
  39. World Organization Against Torture USA, Report on Torture in the United States: The Status of Compliance by the US Government with the International Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Morton Sklar, ed. and comp., (Washington DC, Oct. 1998): 98  The three years of lobbying efforts by Harlan Girard of the International Committee Against Offensive Microwave Weapons (ICOMW) deserves an honorable mention.
  40. European Parliament, resolution, EU A4-005/99. “Resolution on the Environment, Security, and Foreign Policy,” passed on Jan. 29, 1999  Path: Activities; Plenary Sessions; Reports; A4 number; 0005.

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